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When you cut or injure yourself, your body stops the bleeding by forming a blood clot. Proteins and particles in your blood, called platelets, stick together to form the blood clot. The process of forming a clot is called coagulation. Normal coagulation is important during an injury, as it helps stop a cut from bleeding and starts the healing process.
However, the blood shouldn’t clot when it’s just moving through the body. If blood tends to clot too much, it is referred to as a hypercoagulable state or thrombophilia.
Are hypercoagulable states dangerous?
Hypercoagulable states can be dangerous, especially when these conditions are not properly identified and treated. People with hypercoagulable states have an increased risk for blood clots developing in the arteries (blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart) and veins (blood vessels that carry blood to the heart). A clot inside a blood vessel is also called a thrombus or an embolus.
Blood clots in the veins or venous system can travel through the bloodstream and cause deep vein thrombosis (a blood clot in the veins of the pelvis, leg, arm, liver, intestines or kidneys) or a pulmonary embolus (blood clot in the lungs).
Blood clots in the arteries can increase the risk for stroke, heart attack, severe leg pain, difficulty walking, or even the loss of a limb.
Hypercoagulable states are usually genetic (inherited) or acquired conditions. The genetic form of this disorder means a person is born with the tendency to form blood clots. Acquired conditions are usually a result of surgery, trauma, medications or a medical condition that increases the risk of hypercoagulable states.
Acquired hypercoagulable conditions include:
Inherited hypercoagulable conditions include: